Sustainable Development Goal 3-Good Health and Well-being By Mark Darko

Advertisement

 

Good health and well-being is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. The official wording is: “To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.”
The targets of SDG 3 cover and focus on various aspects of healthy life and healthy lifestyle. Progress towards the targets is measured using twenty-one indicators.

SDG 3 has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under five years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.

SDG 3 aims to achieve universal health coverage, that seeks equitable access of healthcare services to all men and women. It proposes to end the preventable death of newborns, infants and children under five (child mortality) and end epidemics.

Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda. It focuses on broader economic and social inequalities, urbanization, climate crisis, continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases, not forgetting emerging challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Considering the global pandemic of COVID-19, there is a need to give significant attention towards the realization of good health and well being on a global scale.


--Advertisement--

Limitations and implications

Investing in multi-stakeholder partnerships to remove barriers to equitable health services which are responsive to increasingly diverse population health needs, and to reach those most further behind first is essential for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Strong commitment by UN Member States and the international community to ensuring good health and wellbeing is achieved is therefore emphasised.

A recent analysis in 2017 showed that the input, outcome and impact indicators has limitations in their approach. SDG 3 tracks population health across many different disease states, however it possesses several limitations according to this analysis. It does not track protection from financial risk, primary health care inputs, how satisfied users are with the health care system and does not provide with a way to tackle the prevention, diagnosing, treatment and management of various diseases.

Firstly, primary health care. There are no indicators for primary health care, only two indicators for resource management; health care worker density and hospital access. This does not factor in key primary healthcare systems and community inputs, such as accessing a PHC clinic, health education or the availability of essential medicines at these clinics. PHC is a foundation for improving population health and allows a step towards a strong health system with universal health coverage. Policymakers and practitioners should look at and think about how to add PHC into achieving SDG 3.

Secondly, no comprehensive approach is present for being able to diagnose, prevent, manage and treat any disease. An impact indicator gets information from a preceding output indicator from either public or health care services but never both. This means that SDG 3 focuses on targeted interventions for priority diseases, but does not promote an approach for preventing, diagnosing, treating and managing any disease. Additionally, the output indicators do not include preventative health behaviours such as condom use, physical exercise or nutrition. Furthermore, five of the impact indicators have no preceding outputs but they can be easily addressed through environmental health and other programs. Policymakers should be aware that the guidance given in SDG 3 is only a summary, and more factors have to be considered in order to improve population health for each disease.

Lastly, the indicators do not track financial risk protection or user satisfaction using health care services. If people are not protected against financial implications of using the health care system, this can lead to a decrease in access of care. A patient`s satisfaction with the health care system should also be monitored, as this can negatively impact the future interactions with the health care system. Policymakers should be aware that by providing services to improve population health, this will have implications on financial status and satisfaction with the healthcare system which is not portrayed in SDG 3.

Challenges

The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 is a serious threat to the progress of SDG 3 aimed to ensure healthy lives and well-being for all. As the pandemic spread worldwide, the lockdown had over 70 countries putting a hold on various health services such as child vaccination, family planning, cancer screening, etc. Hundreds of thousand more under five fatality should be expected in 2020. The pandemic has also led to overloading and overcrowding of health facilities and many people have become afraid of visiting these centers for fear of being infected.

Most non-COVID-19 diseases have been either neglected or interrupted and healthcare systems are in turn stretched beyond their capacity and capabilities to provide adequate care. This is a great reverse in decades of improvement and has reiterated the need for governments to prioritize issues of healthy living and well-being and work towards the goal of SDG 3.

The governments of countries who already suffer from health workers shortage and other healthcare systems should take advantage of the lessons learnt during this crisis and build up resilience to combat future health pandemics and achieve progress towards Universal Health Coverage.

Market Highlights

INTERBANK FOREX RATES 💴💰
US$GH¢ Buy 7.4963 Sell 7.5038
GB£GH¢ Buy 9.0240 Sell 9.0338
CHFGH¢ Buy 7.7672 Sell 7.7743
AUD$GH¢ Buy 5.2086 Sell 5.2152
CAD$GH¢ Buy 5.8287 Sell 5.8343
JP¥GH¢ Buy 0.0548 Sell 0.0549
NZDGH¢ Buy 4.6898 Sell 4.6958
ZARGH¢ Buy 0.4462 Sell 0.4465
EU€GH¢ Buy 7.6552 Sell 7.6629
CHN¥GH¢ Buy 1.1104 Sell 1.1112
GH¢CFA Buy 85.6017 Sell 85.6878
GH¢NG₦ Buy 56.3800 Sell 56.4227

CRYPTOCURRENCY MARKET
Bitcoin $21,879.04 🔼7.57%
Ethereum $1,248.24 🔼6.83%
Binance Coin $241.89 🔼2.38%
Ripple $0.3508 🔼6.30%
Cardano $0.4778 🔼2.94%
Solana $37.97 🔼3.86%
Dogecoin $0.07059 🔼3.68%

💵Bloomberg USDGHS Cross Rate – *8.2750* (YTD – 33.81🔺️%)

💰STANBIC BANK FX RATES💵
US$GH¢ Buy 7.8200 Sell 8.4200
GB£GH¢ Buy 9.3566 Sell 10.1259
EU€GH¢ Buy 7.9482 Sell 8.6095
CH¥GH¢ Buy 1.1544 Sell 1.2541

🔼GSE DAILY GAINERS ➖ PRICE ➖ %CHANGE
No gainers for today

🔻GSE DAILY LOSERS ➖ PRICE ➖ %CHANGE
No losers for today

〽Inflation rate in Ghana ➡ 29.80% (🔺️+7.97%)

🏦Ghana Reference Rate ➡ 23.66% (🔺️+13.75%)

✳Policy Rate in Ghana ➡ 19.00% (🔺️+11.76%)

¶ TREASURY RATES💸
91 – Day Discount Rate 24.7129% Interest Rate 26.3403%
182 – Day Discount Rate 21.7863% Interest Rate 27.8548%
364 – Day Discount Rate 21.5625% Interest Rate 27.4900%
1 Year Fixed Note Interest Rate 16.5672%
2 Year Fixed Note Interest Rate 21.5000%
3 Year Bond Interest Rate 29.8500%
5 Year Bond Interest Rate 22.3000%
6 Year Bond Interest Rate 21.7500%
7 Year Bond Interest Rate 18.1000%
10 Year Bond Interest Rate 19.7500%
20 Year Fixed Rate Bond 20.2000%

🛢Petroleum Products – Average Price
🏗Petrol – Gh¢11.30/ltr (YTD-🔺️+67.40%)
🛢Diesel – Gh¢13.11/ltr (YTD-🔺️+94.22%)

🏧MARKET INDEXES
*Dow Jones Index🚂⛽ 31,990.04 +90.75 +0.28%
*S&P 500 🏦 3,966.84 +5.21 +0.13%
*Nasdaq Index📲💻 11,782.67 -51.44 -0.43%
* NYSE Composite Index 14,899.09 +108.30 +0.73%
*London FTSE 7,306.30 +29.93 +0.41%
*Germany DAX 13,210.32 -43.36 -0.33%
*Japan NIKKEI 225 27,636.82 -62.43 -0.23%
*Tokyo TOPIX Index 1,941.90 -1.31 -0.07%
*Hong Kong HANG SENG 20,910.32 +347.38 +1.69%
*Shanghai Shenzhen 300 4,238.44 +25.80 +0.61%
*S&P/ASX 200 Index 6,807.50 +17.57 +0.26%
*Bloomsberg EU 500 279.48 +0.44 +0.16%
*France CAC All-Tradable 4,737.24 +10.27 +0.22%
*Dubai DFM General Index 3,235.90 -21.06 -0.65%
*MOEX Russia Index 2,128.96 +32.21 +1.54%
*FTSE/JSE South Africa 61,432.89 -333.85 -0.54%
*Nairobi SE 20 Share 1,680.63 +4.12 +0.25%
*Nigeria SE Main 51,400.53 -579.39 -1.11%
*BBG EMEA World Index 138.94 -0.07 -0.05%
*GSE Composite Index 2,440.50 0.00 0.00%
*GSE Financial Index 2,115.61 0.00 0.00%

GSE INDEXES ⏸ 2022 YTD RETURNS%
*GSE Composite Index 2,440.50 🔻-12.51%
*GSE Financial Index 2,115.61 🔻-1.68%

🔼GSE 2022 GAINERS ➖ PRICE ➖ YTD%
SIC ➡Gh¢0.32 🔼+300.00%
TBL ➡Gh¢0.44 🔼+29.41%
GGBL ➡Gh¢2.25 🔼+25.00%
EGL ➡Gh¢3.30 🔼+18.28%
ETI ➡Gh¢0.16 🔼+14.29%

🔻GSE 2022 LOSERS ➖ PRICE ➖ YTD%
PBC ➡Gh¢0.02 🔻-33.33%
MTNGH ➡Gh¢0.83 🔻-25.23%
FML ➡Gh¢3.00 🔻-25.00%
ACCESS ➡Gh¢2.51 🔻-20.32%
IIL ➡Gh¢0.04 🔻-20.00%

💧MUTUAL FUNDS IN GHANA♣️
📈EQUITY FUNDS ➰YTD%
Databank EPAcK 🔼+2.95%
Republic Equity Trust 🔼+3.15%
Heritage Fund 🔻-1.89%
SAS Fortune Fund 🔼+1.90%

⚖BALANCED FUNDS ⏸ YTD%
EDC Balanced 🔼+4.84%
Databank Bfund 🔼+6.37%
Fidelity Balanced Trust 🔼+7.81%
Enhanced Equity Beta Fund 🔼+12.12%
CCMF 🔼+7.89%
CDH Balanced Fund 🔼+5.88%
CM Fund 🔼+7.19%
Dalex Vision Fund 🔼+6.67%
Plus Balanced Fund 🔼+13.30%
Elite Mutual Fund 🔼+6.89%
Republic Future Plan Trust 🔼+4.32%
Databank EdiFund Tier 2 🔼+6.52%
UMB Balanced Fund 🔼+6.70%

⚙FIXED INCOME FUNDS 🛡YTD%
EDC Fixed Income 🔼+8.44%
Databank Mfund 🔼+9.83%
Fidelity Fixed Income Trust 🔼+8.78%
Financial Independence Fund 🔼+9.14%
Fixed Income Alpha Plus 🔼+10.22%
Nimed Fixed Income Fund Tier 1 🔼+8.14%
Nimed Fixed Income Fund Tier 2 🔼+8.63%
OctaneDC Bond Fund 🔼+8.71%
Plus Income Fund 🔼+9.04%
Stanlib Income Fund Trust 🔼+9.73%
Databank EdiFund T1 🔼+9.79%

MONEY MARKET FUNDS ⏱YTD%
SAS Midas Fund 🔼+8.33%
Octane DC Money Market Fund 🔼+7.26%
First Fund 🔼+7.34%
Stanlib Cash Trust 🔼+8.77%
EDC Money Market Fund 🔼+8.52%
Republic Unit Trust 🔼+7.31%
Sirius Opportunity Fund 🔼+7.70%

COMMODITIES MARKET
*Brent Crude $/barrel⛽ $104.92 +1.72 +1.67%
*Natural Gas 🏭 $/million BTUS $8.73 +0.43 +5.16%
*Gold 👑 $/troy ounce $1,737.10 -8.20 -0.47%
*Silver 💍 $/troy ounce $18.33 -0.29 -1.55%
*Corn 🌽 $/bushel $583.75 +19.50 +3.46%
*Cocoa 🍫 $/metric ton $2,376.00 +79.00 +3.44%
*Coffee ☕ $/pound $210.05 +3.35 +1.62%
*Sugar🎂 $/pound $17.47 -0.42 -2.35%
*Lumber $/1000 board feet $572.20 -13.10 -2.24%
Rubber USd/100kg $150.70 +2.10 +1.41%

Sources: Bank of Ghana, Bloomberg, GSE, Reuters, Doobia, BBC, Graphic Business, Ghana News Agency.

Mark Darko, Accra.

Share your story or advertise with us: Whatsapp: +2347068606071, 2348053062268, Email: [email protected]


--Recommended Articles--